The origin of Chinese civilization

Peking University Professor Ding Yichuan..

        …

       on the origin of Chinese civilization, I speak a few questions …

        the first question: what Chinese civilization is a local native or exotic …

        of the historical records of the first of the five emperors Benji, focused on regional activities of the Yellow Emperor, Sima Qian’s description should be in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, including behind zhuanxu, Ku, Yao, Shun, and more are in this one place. Later the Xia, Shang and Zhou, including Qin, Han, and so on, are a central China as the center of political, cultural, and economic entities. To slowly expand around its culture. This concept, are actually advocating the Chinese civilization is producing their own, is the native culture. Neighboring countries, including Japan, Korea, Viet Nam, under the influence of it.。.

       , however, modern academic appearance, especially anthropology, archaeology in the West to China from the 20 ‘s of the last century, many scholars in particular research scholars of sinology in the West had put in doubt on this issue. They have their own theories, such as talk about culture, that whatever is created by humans or human culture and civilization, try to pursue it, there should be a native, but a. Chinese culture, they think it’s not native, is also coming.。.

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        this theory when I first came to China at the beginning of the last century, China had one thing: the late 19th century and early 20th century, inscriptions found. Writings of the past, we see a so-called first-hand is after the Zhou dynasty, Shang dynasty not seen. Is the written history of the Shang dynasty of Shang dynasty Oracle bone inscriptions. It was a blast. When a scholar named Li Ji organization begun by the Institute of history and Philology in excavation of a real sense of the field, went to went to dig through ruins in Anyang. Decided that this was the late Shang dynasty Yin Pan Geng moved beyond the capital.。 In addition to bones, also unearthed a large number of fine bronze vessels. Oracle itself is already very complex Chinese characters. Judging from these factors, indisputable proof in the late Shang dynasty, China’s ancient civilization has reached a considerable height, has entered the early civilization of society. In this connection, foreigners admitted …

        Western scholars believe that evidence, they think of China’s ancient writing is early, but if there is no physical, it is myth. Those things really are things of summer’s or service provider ‘s, if you can’t find a precise coordinates on, a reference standard, the people will not recognize it. Out of the ruins, they acknowledged Shang civilization was really really into civilised society. But it not only fails to resolve the dispute between native and alien, but controversy is greater.。 Western scholars, in particular the dissemination of scholars believe that the theory of culture is an exotic, operator, intruders, the conqueror. It follows, of early Chinese culture is alien. Outside the territory of China, and some even earlier than the Shang dynasty and very advanced civilization exists. Chinese to rebut, but because of lack of evidence, the two sides said …

        subsequently, one thing Pei Wenzhong found the Peking Man. In 1927. They organized in Zhoukoudian geological investigation, ancient humans, suddenly human bone fossils dug up 600,000 years ago, especially the skull. Stir, because the local community that found its evidence, 600,000 years ago, how the Chinese might be outside? …

        the late 20 ‘s, Sweden one ante, he is an adventurer, was a geologist, expect China to Taobao. Mianchi a place called Yangshao village of Henan province, and found large quantities of pottery. Since then, including ante angry with them, there are other scholars found many Yangshao pottery similar nature, painted pottery of a similar age, about 6,000 years from now. Later named Yangshao culture. Characterized by reddish-brown painted pottery …

        look at this picture, famous, top is a stork holding a fish, along with an axe. Big, is a URN coffins. Some people say this is realistic, AX, representative powers of the chiefs. This is a bird of the tribal chieftains conquered a tribal chief of the fish. Anyway, there are a number of explanations, all speculation. There are some very famous pottery, such as the human face fish pattern, pottery of the dancing little people, are very beautiful …

        pottery culture of 6,000 years from now, although the Shang dynasty was still thousands of years away, but found, after all, is represented by the Yin ruins of civilizations different prehistoric cultures before, and seems to have some relationship between them. Yellow River basin as a whole, found a so-called characterized by painted pottery, pottery cultures of about 6,000 years from now. From the upper reaches of the middle reaches of the Yellow River, Henan, Shaanxi and Gansu have found.。 And somewhere out of the pottery earlier. Their shape, decoration and had something in place. They think it’s coming …

        demonstrate Chinese culture localization work has always been an important task for Chinese archaeology. Now that you have discovered pottery, so keep looking. Until the 50 ‘s, finally has a very big breakthrough: pottery cultures within the material splendour of the cishan in Hebei and Henan provinces respectively both found the same pottery, almost 1000 years earlier than the Yangshao. The discovery is important because the more primitive pottery with very distinct native characteristics, very rough, and later Yangshao pottery has a very clear relationship between inheritance and development.。 But, more importantly, this era was rooted earlier than outside. Chinese scholars and elated all at once, wrote many articles at once, said pottery culture was not West, but to the West, this is the root. From the cishan culture to the Yangshao culture, is a development from lower to higher, though one-way complex clues. This case is now finished, one found early, they also discovered early, still debating who is the colored pottery culture origin. Over, it is now basically a relative consensus: pottery culture in this big circle, each has its own point as to which is the origin, it was not possible to determine the …

        much of the Yangshao culture origin of Chinese civilization is very large. In Yangshao found at roughly the same time, late 20 30 early pottery circle Northeast, Eastern Shandong and Henan, found a new pottery culture, Longshan culture. Longshan culture pottery culture make it a little later, is about 4,500 years. Unearthed pottery, but its typical pottery is pottery and ceramic walls as thin as an eggshell, it is called eggshell pottery. Its technology is high, pierced engraved or a double inside and outside, very beautiful.。 Later finds include North Korea, Japan, America, constitutes a heitaowenhua ring. Black is different from ancient painted pottery, and obviously with the later culture of Shang and Zhou dynasties from the metaphysical connection between. One is painted pottery, one is black, what is the culture of Xia, Shang and Zhou. Along with the archeological evidence, we do all day long, from top to bottom, from prehistory to the civilized pedigree of build up. This means local culture had its own development path. In particular, these things are in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, two cultures, junction, heitaowenhua slowly replace the colored pottery culture. One conjecture is that East and West two groups struggle, then prevailed in the East.。 Can be found in the Central Plains as the origin at the center of its own, there is a spectrum from morning till night, and with something more and more, its local sex is more and more clear …

        Longshan bottom there is also a very famous Erlitou culture, in Yanshi County of Henan province. Terms of age belonging to the Xia dynasty. Xia dynasty in the past could not be found, so after two, everyone was excited, because from the era are in combination with summer. Geographical center of summer activities. So it is the Xia culture is a distinct possibility. Early, of course, others say it may be cultural. Don’t care if it’s summer, happens to be the convergence of Erlitou culture, Longshan and Shang culture below.。 This sound, and seems to have proved in the past to what we call as the heartland of Chinese culture in Central Plains. So native said was very hot …

        recent years of local and foreign debate is opening up again. The reason, one is within China in addition to the Central Plains, a small piece, also found around the lot. Something around in a certain sense than with external relations relationship with China more. Another is the concept of culture. As research in depth and found within many cultures is not confined to China, but worldwide. In this way, can’t explain it in simple native, alien said. Not only has cultural circle, also known as cultural.。 Sometimes a vast range of migrations are beyond our imagination. Peoples ‘ movement will certainly bring some exchanges between different cultures, collision. Such as pottery, indeed, striped from the Yangtze River to Shandong, Manchuria, Korea, Japan, and even to the United States. Especially the great wall, known as the agro-pastoral transitional zone with its own transmission, collection of toward the Central Plains is not a simple issue. Various descriptions later formed a core of Chinese culture, but earlier we thought or that depicted ancient paths of the birth of Chinese culture is not the same thing. This is a very complex problem.

        of the academic mainstream view is that the Chinese culture in General, is also a native culture. As it was the facts in evidence, such as Xia, Shang and Zhou. China is developing very high, around to catch it, and press it down. It is around this culture began to have an impact. Around culture, including within the Chinese territory, for example, Sanxingdui in Sichuan, with many parts of the Central Plains culture is not the same, but under the influence of Central Plains culture is obvious. After you have a high or low, central China does have a commanding advantage. But earlier, I can’t say.。 In accordance with the cultural diffusion theory, less easy to come in here. In summary, the Chinese culture has a relatively closed, the original is something unique to it …

        the second issue, which naturally leads to the issue of China’s civilization is a still more factors …

        local and migrant struggles discussed earlier, find local is starting from the Central Plains. Yangshao and Longshan, are both in the Central Plains. Then you have a very clear idea of Chinese culture native to be here. Sure enough, find anything here. That idea is thought so since ancient times, as reported in the five emperors Benji v Park Royal bloodlines, in this activity. Later, the descendents of the views expressed, behind several dynasties, the Centre is here. Generally in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, which is early civilizations the Fuxin region.。 This is spread over longer …

        in recent decades, with the development of Archaeology in China, as compared with other civilizations of the world, this notion becomes untenable. After the eighties throughout the prehistoric civilization unearthed a lot of know things. Fei Xiaotong’s later years is particularly concerned about the Chinese civilization and the origins of the Chinese nation, in particular, he mentioned that it was the sky stars-like discoveries. There is one archaeological community the good graces of character-level-Su Bingqi, he is a well known scholar of studying prehistoric civilization.。 He said there were six or seven districts, supplemented by other scholars, say a dozen. Like to Guanzhong, and jinnan, and Henan for Center of Zhongyuan; to Shandong for Center of Oriental; to Yangtze River downstream ring Lake for Center of Southeast; to Poyang Lake, and Pearl River Delta along for in the axis of South; Dongting Lake and Sichuan for Center of southwest; to Yanshan North-South, and wall for Center of North,, these are the is a District Department, respective has respective of prehistoric culture of features. Of course, this is a very simple scheme, which goes well. These prehistoric cultures, prehistoric culture in the central plain at the same time. In the area surrounding North, South, East, and no less energetically than on its level of development.。 So he said this problem occurs: early Chinese culture is not from the Central Plains produced? It is not a dollar? …

       , for example, Eastern Liaoning and Inner Mongolia Hongshan culture in the chifeng area, dating from the late Yangshao culture and Longshan culture behind roughly. Current archaeology reveals it developed a sense of higher than the Central Plains. Hongshan culture jade is amazing. Central Plains although there are jade, jade can’t, can’t. Real can match it and its contemporary or slightly later Liangzhu culture, it is in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Jade goes far beyond these two cultures in Central Plains, its exquisite degree staggering.。 We see the pictures, that is yuzhulong, the so-called Chinese Dragon, indicating a dragon of Hongshan beliefs. Jade is accounted for the largest share of sacrifice, is the ritual. Jade appears, shows that the development of society must have reached a considerable height, must be the agricultural development to a considerable degree, a lot of surplus labor to do it; another is that things must have to do with social hierarchies, and these are useful artifacts must be related to religious ritual, with the upper. Yue ling, related to religion, heaven-communication, attaches particular importance to this thing of the ancients, can talk to it as heaven, Earth, God of communication instruments used to use.。 A circle in the Middle, outside is a total in a column. What you see in the picture this was unearthed in Liangzhu, disproportionately, known as Wang yucong. Yucong is clearly a sacrifice …

        in addition to jade, showed up in the Red Mountain covers an area of very large altar, are big rocks. Found a site at that time, the altar, Palace, Temple of the female, with real-life completely separate, clear social stratification after upper place devoted to religion, including political activities. Hongshan, Liangzhu. Liangzhu and some large tombs, was amazing. Before Hemudu and Liangzhu, around 7,000 years Shandong Longshan culture, until the Dawenkou culture, 6,000 years from now. These are things beyond its current Central Plains have been found.。 Which means that in addition to the Central Plains where bits and a lot of Zhongyuan varies greatly, and the high level of development of such culture. So naturally, scholars in particular local scholars think that this place is a source of the Chinese culture. We are fighting nature put forward the so-called “multi”. So is by Central Plains extending out of Chinese culture, or separate source, finally together, so I created a dollar, multi-battle …

        now, we prefer the term–not always appropriate, but more image–was Fei Xiaotong said “diversity in unity” said. This is by far the better explains the origin of Chinese civilization we know levels of a statement, there are many sources, but eventually became the mainstream of Chinese civilization was the Central Plains. Hongshan culture is very high, but all of a sudden gone. This situation arises frequently in early civilizations around the world. Liangzhu also said.。 Instead of fading in Central Plains, but more prosperous, the last Chinese civilization have been training here. Though there is more than one source, but from a civil society point of view, these other cultures are missing something, this step toward civilization failed to in the past, and Central Plains in the past. Once over, it has an advantage. Is it after there was a qualitative change around would have been conquered by force or assimilation. Later on the jades of Shang dynasty was very powerful, very clear relationship to the surrounding culture is, they interact. Central China as represented by the bronze culture of the Shang and Zhou dynasties, formed a central area and spread to the surrounding.。.

As to why it formed the Central Plains-centric one, which will have different interpretations. Here leads to the “environment”. Explained that the southern climate is too good, too easy to feed people, survival environment get too easy, the society cannot progress. Stress civilization, it is in the Central Plains, arid and semi-arid climate, suitable for agricultural production, and resource competition. Population contributed to its climate, land, social differentiation factors, agricultural development, and so on all aspects related to the civilizations of the collection. Once it has been strong, admission came around. But steps backward, other civilizations have to call back. These explanations are not necessarily set up, or that there are other possibilities.

        what is the Chinese civilization? What it involves is the issue of civilization. Said one place to enter civilization or not, there is a standard. What is civilization? Regarding the definition of civilization has more than 100 species. Currently Chinese civilization will be listed as the point of reference, this is academic more …

        is agriculture. This refers to agriculture primary agriculture, early agriculture. There is no agriculture occurs, or that agriculture has not yet reached considerable level is a standard. China’s agricultural Foundation, is a national agricultural civilization, so the relationship between agriculture and China civilizations themselves, especially the later impact. From the perspective of civilization, agriculture is also very important. Used to be a gathering, hunting, fishing. Yangshao culture like you just said, a lot of pottery are realistic or abstract reflection with hunting and fishing.。 Increased production of food, to feed more people, while promoting social division. Division of labour in agriculture and animal husbandry, making rapid increase in social wealth, which are inseparable from the agricultural …

        as far as the Chinese civilization, agriculture is an essential condition. When was the earliest agricultural produce? This is very important. At this point, origin of Chinese agriculture, very early. For example, a very important factor in agriculture–food, Hemudu 7,000 years ago have found rice, rice has more than 100 tons, and very obvious is cultivated, not wild. Emerging crops are millet in the North, have found this thing in the Yangshao culture, Banpo unearthed this thing kind of XI ‘ an.。 In addition to crops, and agricultural tools, and found a lot of this stuff. Crops, farm tools, demonstrate we have agriculture, but reached a certain level …

Agriculture-related sites, we called the settlement, human settlements, has also found a lot. Settled agricultural civilization must have a relationship. Gathering, hunting can be changed in the past, in particular how early did not have land-use cases. Even if there is agriculture, could not stay in one place. Settlers rarely flows, or many years before relocating. Settlement ruins found very much, especially in the Central Plains. More more to prove, agriculture in the area, to feed the population. These settlements have water all around, were all under water, water systems. But they are far from the River, and the river. Because at that time a flood time was bound to be only a little far from the River, and the River line.。 Later as human control on water grows, gradually go down, close to the river. This is a manifestation of human progress. Discovery of these ruins is from the perspective of a relatively indirect evidence of early agricultural development. Will these refinement study can be a rough measure of agriculture. Intensity such as villages, population with food production. In short, starting from six thousand or seven thousand years ago, China’s agriculture and the agricultural cultures like Yangshao and Longshan, hop on, that we already have elements of civilization …

        the second element is the city or cities. Early are some of the settlements, a brotherhood links organizations live together, slowly the settlement to get thicker. Centre for later settlement, like similar towns now. These settlements constituted a group, when it clearly is a geographical feature of social groups, not of pure blood. Associate with each other, which is a prerequisite for development. Archaeological interpretation is the evolution of social organizations, society has been complicated. Finally, there has been a wall of things and tend to have deep trenches outside the walls.。 Such thing as telling than villages without walls clearly different in nature. A trench also explain problems may sometimes be more than the local animal at midnight, sleeps insecure, digging a ditch. Walls are different, and that the walls are rammed-earth walls, a very solid construction. Many parts of the country now also has ruins of ancient city wall, and some prehistoric, some behind. Longshan period, including Henan, Shandong, Jiangsu, and found a lot of much earlier, in the late Yangshao. Now talk about the origins of civilization we all recognize there is a very important criteria. Why don’t you call the city? “City” is from commercial trade.。 As we all know, is linked to all of the State of war, with the Army National. Towns is a material witness, but is a reflection of the social civilization development degree …

        third element is metal utensil. Development is the hardware after the stone, pottery, which is a standard of social change. In China, the hardware is brass. Plenty of other civilizations from the stone age to the iron age. China in particular, China entered into the bronze age. Found bronzes that China has got rid of the stone age. Now, in the Neolithic period, is the Lungshan era does bronze have been found.。 Later is rezhu. There is a progressive process. At that time did not have a large bronze, particularly containers. Earliest vessels found at Erlitou culture, Grand Mercure is a small, a little older than ordinary glass, very early these days, also belongs to the bronze. Although there is a bronze, at that time the most important pottery …

        in addition, the special mention here refers to the civilization of China, many scholars do not pure brass or metal utensils as a criterion for its craftsmanship, jade can be used as a standard for measuring into the civilization. Chinese jade culture is very developed, era and earlier, the fine is wholly comparable with bronze, reflecting the level of civilization development. In addition to jade, bone, ivory carving are very beautiful. Even earlier lacquerware is also reflects prevailing level of technology …

        another factor is that text. What is civilization? Other elements are still disputed, but everyone recognized text is the essence of civilization. Text is the stuff of history books, are credible, no text may be legend. Why is everyone acknowledged Shang civilization? Oracle, with written records of events, and the language has developed. Oracle is certainly not the first language, because its structure is very complex. Shuo Wen Jie Zi says “Shu” lot at Oracle.。 It is regrettable that, many now are considered to be of the earlier text or text might be something not achieved academic recognition. In many prehistoric cultures, some utensils carved symbols, it is felt that this is the text, or is the name of engravers. These are symbols, sure no problem. However, scholars argue that these are simply depict symbols, also was an early text. Some symbols with later bronze inscriptions of the Oracle, there are some symbols of relationship. But overall, again with later inscriptions on bones and the system is not entirely consistent. So some people say that they just stay in the period depict symbols, not words, not words but also the development.。 Text was also said to be Qiang. But because the symbols are too small and relatively isolated, Express does not clear what you mean, it’s hard to explain …

        inscription on the artifacts unearthed in juxian, Shandong’s symbol, zouping, later in the the Dinggong also appeared some symbols, clear portraits. Qiu xigui, they treat ancient Chinese characters, they assumed the characters are related. Early pictographs in China, many drawings you can count words. Shandong area early in the day, and worship of God is very heavy, like Tai Hao, Shao Hao, with ties to both. Of these carved artifacts like a painting, it was felt that is the predecessor of the Chinese characters. Unearthed in, of course, because too little is still difficult to dispute.。 But at least tell us later transition to Oracle is a clue to follow. When dug up one of the earliest text, text solves that as civilization elements. Some scholars say, did not find the text was fine, the prehistoric transition to civilization, writing is not required, such as the Huns was a great empire, but there was no word. Said city, ruins of walls cannot be found, it was built in accordance with River, walls, or only some of the walls could not be found …

        at one point, China is different from other civilizations, is the so-called ceremonial worship Center. Some say that Chinese culture is culture, early stuff from the perspective of ritual are traceable. Large ceremonial ritual centers appear to reflect a degree of social development …

        you see the pictures, this is the taosi site in xiangfen, Shanxi, belonging to the Longshan period. This site was the most important thing is that it appears the obvious large buildings used in ritual, ceremonial activities. Because of its appearance, many scholars began to write articles saying China’s culture is not Duke, go way back. And earlier are not rites-from folk-simple as we think, is very serious in the prehistoric technology.。 These things in many sites of prehistoric civilization in the process of the emergence of a large number of …

        elements of the civilization, is the best. But with a few of these, basically you can judge a society has begun to move civilization. Controversy around would have to come up with a standard, measured in accordance with this standard. Although these rulers were not so standard, strict, but generally the relative frame. These are my material evidence. A deficiency or to what extent, after all, there is a great deal of one-sidedness, even if these are all or nothing, that it may not be a civilized society.

        so what is civilization? Back to Engels ‘ remark: the standard of civilization is to see if this time entering the country, State of civilized society is summed up. Said agriculture, urban or, is combined with an integrated thing. Rulers, regulatory agencies and so on. A country related to a qualitative change in society. Countries must have geographical ties. Are blood community in ancient China, blood factors until the Zhou dynasty was such.。 But this stuff, and I hate it, it is a virtual, how to prove it? You couldn’t dig out of a country, so went back to literature. According to historical records, according to archaeology, to comprehensive considerations if the community reach civilization …

        why countries? Because now when discussing the origin of civilization, has advocated from the early discussion on the nature of the State to bring in the chiefdom theory. We said that by the early clan, tribe, tribal Alliance, finally entering the country. They say from the tribe to the State not tribal alliances between, but rather the chiefdom. Chiefdom is a translation of words, talking to you about itself, with tribal characteristics, but it already has a bunch of regional characteristics. The impact theory is the theory of Marxism.。 This is a good point, but it is very difficult, because you can’t dig out of the country. Explore early civilizations, including characteristics of the early States, although there are many interesting explanations, theories, however difficult, imagine, projections of space very much. Also are constantly explored. Current effort is the origin of Chinese civilization project …

        in conclusion, simply say a few words when entering the Chinese civilization. The origins of civilization is a long process, from quantity to quality, always from the outside into the door. When did this threshold? I said time span, from six thousand or seven thousand to 4,000 years, civilizations are not the same. These elements of civilization is not the same time, so when entering China is a civilized debate.。 Now many scholars begin to fix the previous count. But since when is, the textbooks we used to write the formal entry into history is the Xia dynasty, 21st century BC. From here into civilized society, dynasty, the State was formally entered. Over the years, obviously, there is a tendency to hope that the Chinese culture has a long history, so there are a lot of into more civilized than the Xia dynasty as early as saying. The first was 6,000 years of Chinese civilization. There are, of course, very few people said was also entering civilization 6,000 years ago. 6,000 years is that much, why? First was initiated said it had everyone, such as Mr Donelan, he’s bronzes, ancient people.。 Mr Donelan said this period of Dawenkou culture is, this period town, there is a very fine pottery, there are things that look like text, agriculture. He inferred from those elements that can be defined as beginning the transition to civilization. But that said, evidence is still too thin. Dawenkou shows the overall level of development can not reach, but it is an isolated event, and later into something Dongyi culture circle. Hope sooner I pursued nature is good, but I’m afraid that’s too optimistic …

        the second is most popular, is a traditional saying: 5,000 years of Chinese civilization. For 5,000 years, including the late Yangshao and Longshan early, most importantly with the legendary Yellow Emperor period together. In fact, involves a large number of civilisation in ancient Yellow Emperor legends in the history of problems found, text, and so on all have a relationship with the Yellow Emperor period. As we see, the legend was invented by a number of myths, but it must have a history of early Chinese ancients passed down through word of truth.。 Now more and more archaeological discoveries indicate history of 5,000 years of civilization may indeed be true, suspicion of the suspect in the past has gone too far. But now I still can’t use it as a conclusion, things were not enough, just up a little more, maybe we can put it …

        academics say more at the moment is: 4,500 years. Xia dynasty to the said premises, but didn’t dare talk about 5,000 years. This period corresponds to late Longshan culture, belonging to the late Neolithic was more or less told us, Shun and Yu abdication era. Books about Huangdi live several hundred, this is not true. Xia, the time difference for centuries, not only one or two leaders. We have in the past times speak it as a legend. If you follow the ancient Su Bingqi says, is likely to be early civilization.。 But now consider abdication of this form is not the world, but, after all, is a distinct geographic organization of ideas, and that social organization is not a brotherhood does not determine conditions of a country does not become a State, instead the world is reflected in the form of blood, with regional organizations in conflict is to some extent. Therefore, it is entirely possible to understand the characteristics of the early States Shun and abdication of the era. Ancient Chinese did not take them categorically separated. The history of the Yao of the code, the Shun classic, think of the Yu Gong began to enter the country from the Yao, Shun. The book’s viewpoint of doubting ancient history not the Yellow Emperor, is starting from Yao and Shun.。 It shows that the ancient Chinese Yao, Shun may indeed be placed into the State, access to the emperor. Sima Qian said the Yellow Emperor, it’s relationship with Taoism, Confucianism of Yao, Shun, Emperor entered the system. Judging from the Confucian viewpoint of doubting ancient history, from Yao and Shun were regarded as the King of the Xia, Shang and Zhou, are common. An election-Hyun, a child is, despite fundamental differences, but which they consider to be. This sense, we believe that entering civilization point of view to understand, moved from the Xia dynasty up into civilization, moving into the era of Yao, Shun, and this does have a point.。   …

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The origin of Chinese civilization

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